Managing Parent – Subsidiary Relationship

Introduction

A Company that owns more than 50% of the stock is said to be the parent company of the Subsidiary. A subsidiary may be wholly or partially owned by the parent company. The Parent company incorporates the subsidiary, names its board of directors and officers, and adopts bylaw provisions preserving the parent’s control on its subsidiary. The subsidiary must be established and recognized by the parent, as well as third parties, as an independent corporation managed by a board of directors.

It is important that the subsidiary is recognized as an independent corporation managed by the board of directors even though it was incorporated by the parent company. This does not mean that the subsidiary is uncontrolled. The parent company has the legal authority to hold the subsidiary accountable to meet the financial objectives.

For the Parent company to control the independent subsidiary it should be
The sole shareholder
Include voting control provisions in subsidiary article
Prepare bylaws defining the authority of the officers, their term in the office and removal
Prohibit bylaws amendment without shareholders approval

Managing Parent-Subsidiary Relationship

As long as the parent company holds its subsidiary accountable for the expectations of its board of directors there is little risk for the parent for the wrong doings of the subsidiary. If the parent company exercises excessive control over the subsidiary, i.e., having the same board of directors, using a common letterhead, sharing office facilities, then the distinction between the parent and the subsidiary will be at risk. A subsidiary can be held accountable for its performance by the parent company by its voting control. It also has the authority to select the board of directors. This board manages the affairs of the subsidiary, makes policy, selects its officers and functions as a governing body. Most critical is the decision taken by the parent company in selecting the board of directors.

Parents and Federal Regulators Alarmed, as Majority of Recalls are Baby Products

Because parenting a baby or toddler is not a breeze, many use a variety of products made to for easier supervision of young children. Although these products are well-intentioned, if not manufactured correctly, it is possible for an accident to occur resulting in serious personal injury or death. As a dedicated Detroit personal injury lawyer who sees many examples of injury stemming from product recalls, it is difficult not to notice an alarming trend: a majority of items called back are those intended for use by small children and babies, those who are the most defenseless against an accident.

According to Don Mays, the senior director of product safety, of the over 500 recalls made by the Consumer Product Safety Commission each year are for children’s products–not to mention additional recalls made by other institutions such as the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

For example, the CPSC warned parents earlier this year that only older and larger babies should be held in soft-sling carriers, as three young children died as a result of suffocation in 2009. Also included in the products recalled are Simplicity and Graco cribs, as well as millions of strollers. Both products have a history of malfunctioning, causing significant personal injury or death to several infants and toddlers.

Sparked by the many product recalls, like those listed above, federal regulators, manufacturers, and parents continue to debate how to make sure products are safe for use by small children and babies. Mays insists that federal institutions are doing all they can to respond to safety issues, he also acknowledged that “there are probably more unsafe products on the market in recent times than there have been in the passed.” Although reasons for this vary, studies conducted by the Consumer’s Union reveal that over 80 percent of products recalled between 2007 and 2008 were made in China. Sending manufacturing overseas could be one problem according to Mays, as “sometimes the controls are not put in place to make sure the product is manufactured in a safe fashion,” he explained.

Because of a great amount of unsafe children’s products on the market, it is essential that parents are proactive in protecting their children. Keeping updated with public safety announcements made by the manufacturing companies, the CPSC, as well as safety advocates can help prevent disaster in your home. If your child does sustain personal injury or dies due to a malfunctioning product, as a parent, you must be filled with questions regarding your options. For answers, as well as the highest quality legal advice and legal representation, it is important to contact a hard-working and aggressive Detroit personal injury attorney. Doing so quickly will not only make sure your personal injury claim receives a positive outcome, but that your child receives compensation for injuries and losses sustained.

Michigan Injury Lawyer

Wales Plastic Bag Tax Shows Progress With Wholesale Cotton Bags Usage On The Rise

The number of consumers turning to wholesale shopping bags as a reusable and green alternative to the traditional plastic bag is on the rise.

Results from a study undertaken by WRAP, the governments waste body show that the single use of plastic carrier bags have been gradually declining over the years. The progress made in recent years is reflected in the fact that thin carrier bag usage is down 40% on 2006.

The increased awareness of the environmental impact of these bags amongst retailers and consumers has helped to change shopping habits.

Leading environmental campaigners state that the use of single-use plastic bags cause significant environmental problems such as harming wildlife, spoiling the landscape and furthermore take over 1000 years to decompose.

Keen to show the changes in buyer behaviour, leading retailers have adopted a number of schemes to help encourage the take-up of bags of life, by unveiling their own lines of branded cotton carrier bags.

Other different techniques employed by retailers include staff being trained to ask customers whether they require a bag and increasing the collection of used bags for recycling at store.

The decrease in the number of single-use bags has been significantly driven by the introduction of a levy in Wales, the plastic bag tax, which retailers claim has seen usage cut by a whopping 90%. The progress shown could see the tax rolled out across the UK.

Six months after the minimum charge of 5p per bag was introduced in the country, a number of leading supermarkets have stated that one-time plastic bag usage has dropped.

Sainsbury’s saw a 90 per cent fall, the Co-op reported 86 per cent and Morrisons 60 per cent, BBC Wales revealed.

Sainsbury’s said to the BBC: “The scheme is working well and has clear benefits both for the environment and for charities.

“Over the last three months we’ve seen a drop of around 90 per cent in the use of single use bags in our Welsh stores.”

Northern Ireland looks set to introduce a similar tax next year with Scotland and England set to follow suit.

By purchasing wholesale cotton bags in bulk, it gives customers an alternative to the plastic bag and encourages them to use the cotton bags. These bags can be easily branded with company logos and slogans to give them more of a corporate identity.

It’s all about pregnancy and Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition when there is high blood sugar recognized during pregnancy. Almost 4% of all pregnancies women face the same issue. Due to hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy, there is some degree of impaired glucose intolerance for all women. It shows that the blood sugar level is higher than the normal lady but it is not that high like diabetes. But when you are at third trimester of pregnancy then the chances goes at the height of causing the diabetes problem. Gestational diabetes is kind of diabetes when a lady is having high level of blood sugar at the pregnancy period. It can become sometimes risky. So, you do care and keep checking yourself time to time.

During pregnancy, some hormonal increase in placenta helps to shift nutrition from mom to developing fetus. Rest hormones are generates in the placenta which is helpful for mother as saves from developing low blood sugar. They work by the resistance of insulin action. As the pregnancy grows, the hormones leads to progressive weakened glucose fanaticism and for decrease in blood sugar levels body made more insulin to use that glucose into cells as energy.

Would be Mom’s pancreas can make more insulin and this is around three times more than the normal amount and is sufficient to overcome the effects of pregnancy hormones over the levels of blood sugar. In case, pancreas is not able to make sufficient insulin then you can get arise in blood sugar level and that is gestational diabetes. When you are caught with the problem then it can put effect over the developing fetus. If you are diagnosed with diabetes in early pregnancy then the baby in the womb can have birth defects or even miscarriage. The birth defects can be occurring to heart and brain.

Ladies who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes at the second and third trimester then it can give way to over nutrition and sometimes excess growth of baby. If the baby is larger enough than it increases the risk at the time of labor as well as delivery. So, you have to eat right and try to depend over herbal remedy diabetes for keep the weight of baby under control.

If you are overweight than can be easily caught with gestational diabetes. Some people have sugar in urine or the member of high risk ethnic group or have family history of diabetes are at the highest risk of having the diabetes and the easy solution available here is herbal remedy diabetes and so you have to depend over that. Ladies who have previously given birth to child over 9 pounds, over have gave birth to stillborn baby are also at huge risk of having the problem.

Jimmie Scott explains here that gestational diabetes is huge issues and risky too but if you are using herbal remedy diabetes than can keep the condition under control.

A Little Bit Of Information About Primates

What do you have in common with a chimpanzee, a mountain gorilla, and a spider monkey? You are all closely related mammals – you are primates.

As you might have already guessed there is a wide diversity among primates, but there are some traits that all share. Most primates have “opposable thumbs”, which means that their thumbs can rotate to touch the fingertips on the same hand. This helps primates climb trees and grasp food. Also, primates can see in color, and their brains are generally longer than those of other mammals. They range in size from the tiny mouse lemur, which weighs only 2 ounces, to the gorilla, which can weigh 600 pounds.

The more primitive primates, called prosimians include the strange aye-aye, lemurs and the sifakas. There three-dwelling primates live on the island of Madagascar. Galagos, lorises, pottos, and tarsiers are also prosimians. Scientists believe that the earliest primates that appeared on Earth some 70 million years ago were similar to some of the mammals in this group.

The “higher” primates include marmosets, tamarins, monkeys, apes, and humans. Found only in South America, marmosets and tamarins are squirrel-sized primates that are some of nature’s most spectacular mammals.

Marmosets and tamarins eat fruit, flowers, nectar, insects, frogs and spiders. They live in close family groups of between four and 15 individuals. All members of the group help raise the young – sharing food and even carrying them from time to time. It’s possible that these “babysitters” are learning how to care for the offspring that they will have one day.

Most primates do not exhibit this kind of family cooperation, but some do live in smaller family groups made up of a male and female and their immature offspring. Gibbons and their cousins, the siamang monkeys, live in groups such as this. In titi monkey family groups, the male takes the lead role in caring for the young. He is the one who is in charge of feeding, protecting and carrying the infant until it is about four or five months old and mature enough to keep up with its family.

The great apes – chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas – are human beings’ closest relatives. These amazing animals have many behaviors and physical characteristics that are just like ours. Apes have no tails, and they have long arms and highly developed brains. Gorillas are usually described as being of either the lowland or mountain variety. The mountain gorilla is an endangered species. Only a few hundred remain in the mountains of East Africa.

Would You Like To Buy A Leather Bag

Compared other leather, the top layer leather is very expensive certainly. Although it is a thing what everyone already knew, many people hesitate to spend so much money on it. But you can use a top-layer-leather bag for ten years or even twenty years, and it is easy to nurse because you can wash it by running water. At the same time, the top-layer-leather bag can show your status and taste. Especially the all leather bags are made by hands, so it has excellent make and soft surface. Thus, it is more durable and worthy to but this kind of bag.

But do you know why the leather bags are so expensive? The leather is a very important factor which affects bags value and the top layer leather is more expensive than the second layer leather because it has good quality and wonderful color, such as KAISER and EIBOO bags. This is why cheap leather bags are also popular in the market. On the one hand, they are the leather bags certainly; on the other hand, they are not as expensive as other famous bags. But we need to admit that the style of this kind of leather bag is not very fashionable.

It is worthy of being mentioned the calf skin. As we all know, the calf skin has fine texture and beautiful lines. Many dealers intend to imply that their bags are made by calf skin in order to run the price up.

No matter it is calf skin or cattle skin, it is leather bag of high quality. What consumers should remember is that some dealers may imitate leather skin by bonded leather and high quality PU. Consumers need to learn some knowledge about leather skin if they want to buy leather bags.
For example, the easiest way is to smell. You can smell the lovely leather if it is leather bag. Or it is also a good idea to visit a shop of high reputation like www.bagsok.com, you will find economical and credible leather bags in it.

It is true that good quality means high price, but there is exception to this rule. Recently, LV also lunched many cloth bags which are expensive. It is also common in other industries. For example, the natural crystal is more expensive than synthetic crystal.

In addition to the leather, the quality of metal pieces is also an important factor. Especially the shoulder bags which are decorated by U-shaped hoop and metal ornament. Usually, good metal ornament can be still bright even after two or three years. It is also reasonable for expensive price.

The Diseases You Are Destined to Inherit From Your Parents

Children and parents always have many similarities, such as body tall-short, body fat-thin, color of skin … These are all related to heredity. At the same time, many diseases are closely associated with genetic. What diseases are most likely to be inherited?

1. High cholesterol and high blood pressure: If one of the parents has high blood lipids or blood pressure, the child’s risk of illness is about 50%; if parents both suffer from high cholesterol or high blood pressure, then the child’s risk to suffer will reach 75%, which is enough for us to see the heredity of such a cardiovascular disease is very high. In addition, if any of the grandparents suffer from heart disease, the child’s risk of disease will also be very high.

2. Allergy and asthma: If one of the parent has allergic constitution, or is allergic to certain things, such as seafood, pollen, etc., then the child could easily be troubled by those allergic diseases. Genetic risk can reach 30% to 50%. Especially asthma, genetic probability is about 80%.

3. Diabetes: diabetes has the susceptibility of family heredity. Survey showed that the incidence of diabetes patients’ patients is 17 times as higher than non- diabetes patients’ relatives. The genetic predisposition of type ?diabetic patients is more obvious than type?diabetes patients.

4. Rhinitis: Many nose diseases have come from heredity. The most common such as allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis, rhinitis, these three have a family genetic tendency. According to statistics, if one of the parent suffers from allergic rhinitis, 1/3 children their next generation will suffer from this disease; if parents both suffer allergic rhinitis, the possibility of their next generation suffering this disease is up to 2/3.

5. Obesity: If the weight of the couple exceed, then the possibility of their children to become fat is 53%; if only one of them is obese, the probability of their children to be obese will decline to 40%.

6. Cancer: Tumors that are closely related to heredity can be divided into two categories: the first is hereditary tumors completely determined by the genes; the other is the so-called -cancer quality- hereditary cancer that is not found genetic material basis but obvious genetic predisposition.

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Instructions On Making Your Own Set Of Bean Bags

Cornhole is a fun game that can be played with family and friends virtually anywhere you can think of. One of the primary pieces to the game is the cornhole bags. While you can certainly go out and purchase them, you can also make sets of your own. This allows you to save some money and create custom bags.

Creating cornhole bags is a rather simple process that can be done fairly quickly. The advantage of creating your own is you get to select the type of fabric you want to use. This gives you the ability to select different colors or designs for various teams. In addition to the fabric, you will need thread, dried corn, scissors, a sewing machine, and a pencil or pen.

When picking your fabric, it is important you select a kind that is heavy-duty. You do not want to have to make more bags after the first week or two because they ripped. Once you have your fabric picked out, the next step is to begin cutting it up.

You want each cornhole bag to be 7X7. This means you want to take the large piece of fabric you have purchased and begin cutting 7X7 squares to create the bags out of. In all, you want to cut a total of 16 squares. From there, you can take 2 squares at a time and sew them together.

Using a sewing machine, sew a seam around the sides of the bag. It is important you double-stitch at the very least. This will make sure the bags stay together for a long time. You can even triple-stitch just to make sure if you have the time.

As you double-stitch the two squares together, make sure to leave an opening on one of the sides in the middle. This gives you a place to pour the corn into the fabric once you are ready. After you have sewed the two pieces together aside from the middle, turn the fabric inside out and pour 1 cups of corn in.

Once the bag is filled with corn, fold the open seam in and stitch it shut with a sewing machine. Make sure all edges are sewn completely shut to avoid losing corn while throwing your bag.

Not only is making cornhole bags easy, but it can be an enjoyable process as well. It allows you to create custom bags out of any type of fabric you choose from. Once you have filled the bags with corn and sewn them up tight, you are ready to enjoy a fun game of cornhole with family and friends.